Caffeine content was measured at 225.6 mg/serving, 12.8% over its 200 mg label claim.
Creatine content was measured at 1570 mg/serving, 21.5% below its 2000 mg label claim.
Beta-Alanine content was measured at 1630 mg/serving, 8.7% over its 1500 mg label claim.
L-Arginine content was measured at 540 mg/serving, 21.3% below its 686 mg label claim.
This product recorded less than 0.01 PPM (parts per million) of total arsenic.
This product recorded less than 0.01 PPM of cadmium.
This product recorded 0.02 PPM of lead.
This product recorded 0.01 PPM of mercury.
This product claimed 50 calories and 1 g of carbohydrate per serving. In our analysis, this product recorded less than 0.02 g of added sugar per serving. New World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines propose limiting daily added sugar intake to no more than 10% of total energy intake, with a further reduction to 5% (~25g based on a 2000 calorie daily diet) providing additional benefit.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cited that caffeine intake up to 400 mg/day is generally recognized as safe for healthy adults. Two servings of this product would exceed this limit.
This product contains Acesulfame Potassium (Ace K), which is a controversial artificial sweetener linked to a negative influence on taste preference. Pending research is testing hypotheses regarding Ace K's negative effects on cognitive function, prenatal development, and carcinogenicity.
This product contains Sucralose (Splenda), considered a safer artificial sweetener. Sucralose has been suggested to be a trigger of migraines in those who have previously suffered from migraines, but has shown no conclusive carcinogenic, reproductive, or neurological adverse effects in existing clinical research.
Blue No. 1 has been been linked to increased incidence of allergy and hypersensitivity.
Red No. 40 has been been linked to increased incidence of allergy and hypersensitivity. According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), Red No. 40 led to DNA damage and a subsequent increase in the incidence of tumors in animal studies; human toxicity studies, however, are currently lacking.
This product contains 225.6 mg of caffeine per serving. Caffeine is a popular stimulant shown to increase energy, decrease fatigue and, according to limited evidence, improve cognitive function. It has been shown to enhance endurance during physical activity in a dose-dependent manner, with significant effects apparent at doses of 2.5 mg/kg of bodyweight (~170 mg for a 150 lb. individual; ~227 mg for a 200 lb. individual).
This product contains 1570 mg of creatine (as creatine ethyl ester HCl, creapure, creatine monohydrate, and creatine HCl) per serving. Some evidence suggests that creatine shows greater efficacy when taken as a “loading” dose (20 g/day as 4-5 separate doses) for 5 days, followed by a “maintenance dose” of 2 g/day. Evidence of benefit is strongest in younger populations and in those who are not highly trained, particularly for short-term, high-intensity exercise.
This product contains 1630 mg of beta-alanine per serving. Beta-alanine supplementation has been shown to enhance endurance via carnosine (its active metabolite) by buffering acid accumulation in metabolically active muscle cells. Doses of 4 g/daily (taken as 2 g doses twice daily) have shown efficacy in human clinical study. Large, acute doses of beta-alanine have resulted in parasthesia; studies have shown that extended-release formulations or smaller individual doses (~1 g) circumvent this issue.
This product contains 540 mg of L-arginine per serving. L-Arginine's role in pre-workout supplementation is primarily mediated via its role as the primary precursor to nitric oxide (NO), which is implicated in vasodilation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration, and platelet function. Standard pre-workout doses range from 3 - 6 g. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its efficacy as an ergogenic aid is unreliable over both short and long-term supplementation; further research is warranted.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.