Sugar content was measured at 2.79 g/serving, 39.5% over its 2 g label claim.
Caffeine content was measured at 197.78 mg/serving. This product's Supplement Facts label does not specify its caffeine content.
Creatine content was measured at 1439.8 mg/serving. This product's Supplement Facts label does not specify its creatine content.
L-Tyrosine content was measured at 948.2 mg/serving. This product's Supplement Facts label does not specify its L-tyrosine content.
Beta-Alanine content was measured at 2197.3 mg/serving, 9.87% over its 2000 mg label claim.
L-Arginine content was measured at 158.3 mg/serving. This product's Supplement Facts label does not specify its L-arginine content.
Taurine content was measured at 1227.03 mg/serving. This product's Supplement Facts label does not specify its taurine content.
One serving of this product recorded less than 0.1 mcg of total arsenic. Using the assumption that inorganic arsenic comprises 80% of total arsenic, one serving of this product falls below inorganic arsenic’s daily intake limit of 0.1 mcg.
This product recorded 0.024 mcg of cadmium, falling below cadmium's 4.1 mcg daily intake limit.
This product recorded 0.049 mcg of lead, falling below lead's 0.5 mcg daily intake limit.
This product recorded 0.027 mcg of mercury, falling below mercury's 0.3 mcg daily intake limit.
This product claimed 10 calories and 2 g of carbohydrate per serving. In our analysis, this product recorded 2.79 g of added sugar per serving. New World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines propose limiting daily added sugar intake to no more than 10% of total energy intake, with a further reduction to 5% (~25g based on a 2000 calorie daily diet) providing additional benefit.
This product contains Acesulfame Potassium (Ace K), which is a controversial artificial sweetener linked to a negative influence on taste preference. Pending research is testing hypotheses regarding Ace K's negative effects on cognitive function, prenatal development, and carcinogenicity.
This product contains Sucralose (Splenda), considered a safer artificial sweetener. Sucralose has been suggested to be a trigger of migraines in those who have previously suffered from migraines, but has shown no conclusive carcinogenic, reproductive, or neurological adverse effects in existing clinical research.
This product contains 197.78 mg of caffeine per serving. Caffeine is a popular stimulant shown to increase energy, decrease fatigue and, according to limited evidence, improve cognitive function. It has been shown to enhance endurance during physical activity in a dose-dependent manner, with significant effects apparent at doses of 2.5 mg/kg of bodyweight (~170 mg for a 150 lb. individual; ~227 mg for a 200 lb. individual).
This product contains 1439.8 mg of creatine (as creatine nitrate) per serving. Some evidence suggests that creatine shows greater efficacy when taken as a “loading” dose (20 g/day as 4-5 separate doses) for 5 days, followed by a “maintenance dose” of 2 g/day. Evidence of benefit is strongest in younger populations and in those who are not highly trained, particularly for short-term, high-intensity exercise.
This product contains 948.2 mg of L-tyrosine per serving. L-tyrosine supplementation is typically used to maintain neurological performance during activities requiring moderate to long-term mental exertion. Doses of 100 mg/kg of bodyweight (~7 g for a 150 lb. individual; ~9 g for a 200 lb. individual) taken 60 minutes prior to physical activity have shown efficacy in human studies.
This product contains 2197.3 mg of beta-alanine per serving. Beta-Alanine supplementation has been shown to enhance endurance via carnosine (its active metabolite) by buffering acid accumulation in metabolically active muscle cells. Doses of 4 g/daily (taken as 2 g doses twice daily) have shown efficacy in human clinical study. Large, acute doses of beta-alanine have resulted in parasthesia; studies have shown that extended-release formulations or smaller individual doses (~1 g) circumvent this issue.
This product contains 158.3 mg of L-arginine per serving. L-Arginine's role in pre-workout supplementation is primarily mediated via its role as the primary precursor to nitric oxide (NO), which is implicated in vasodilation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration, and platelet function. Standard pre-workout doses range from 3 - 6 g. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its efficacy as an ergogenic aid is unreliable over both short and long-term supplementation; further research is warranted.
This product contains 1227.03 mg of taurine per serving. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid that plays an essential metabolic role, primarily in stabilizing electrically-active tissues, such as the brain and heart. It is suggested to have an excitatory neurological effect and has been shown to reduce blood pressure when taken in combination with caffeine and glucuronolactone; however, the effect of taurine alone is inconclusive and warrants further research. Doses showing efficacy in clinical trials have ranged from 500 - 2000 mg/daily.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.